1962 News and Interesting Tidbits From History

East German Border Guards Mortally wound Peter Fechter
East German Border Guards shoot 18 year old Peter Fechter while trying to escape from East Germany over the Berlin Wall. He was shot in the pelvis which did not kill him but when he began screaming in pain for help, nobody went to help him and after about an hour he bled to death.

The Beatles Replace Pete Best
Shortly before becoming the world's best known pop group The Beatles consisting of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, and George Harrison replace the groups drummer "Pete Best" with Ringo Starr.

Cuban Missile Crisis
In a speech to the American people John F Kennedy told the audience that American Spy Planes had discovered Soviet Missile bases in Cuba, and that these missile bases when complete would be able to launch missiles capable of striking a number of US cities, he told the people that America could not allow these missile bases to be finished and would pursue any action necessary including military action to protect the nation. He informed the American people that the first stage was to place a naval quarantine on the waters around Cuba.

Timeline of Cuban Missile Crisis

1. 15th October: United States reconnaissance photographs taken by an American U-2 spy plane revealed missile bases being built in Cuba.

2. 16th October: President Kennedy is informed that reconnaissance photographs revealed the presence of missile bases in Cuba.

3. 18th October: President Kennedy met Andrei Gromyko, who denies the existance of missiles in Cuba.

4. 22nd October: President Kennedy, in his first public speech informs the American public missiles have been discovered in Cuba which had the potential to attack the United States with nuclear warheads.
And gives warning that.
"It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union".

5. 23rd October: Options for removing misiles from Cuba are discussed with Joint Chiefs of Staff recommending a full-scale invasion, but President Kennedy opposed the Invasion concerned that the U.S. would not gain support around the world andd opted for a naval blockade of Cuba.

6. 23rd October: The US Joint Chiefs of Staff instructed Strategic Air Command to go to DEFCON 2, for the only time in history.

7. 24th October: The Naval Blockade of Cuba by United States begins.

8. 27th October: EXCOMM Meetings in Washington

9. 27th October: Private, public and diplomatic communication between the US and Soviet Union continue following the shooting down of a U-2 spy plane.

10. 27th October: The U.S. informs its NATO allies that the United States may find it necessary within a very short time in its interest and that of its fellow nations in the Western Hemisphere to take whatever military action may be necessary.

11. 27th October: Nikita Khrushchev offered to remove Soviet missile bases in Cuba if the U.S. removed its missile bases in Turkey.

12. 28th October: Nikita Khrushchev informed the United States that he had ordered the dismantling of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.

13. 28th October: The US informs the Soviet Union that the US would remove all missiles set in Turkey on the border of the Soviet Union.

14. 28th October: The US informs the Soviet Union that they will not invade Cuba.

15. 2nd November: President Kennedy tells the American people that Soviet missile bases in Cuba were being dismantled.

16. 20th November: USSR agreed to remove bombers from Cuba and US lifted its blockade.

This is known in history as the " Cuban Missile Crisis " and took the world to the brink of nuclear war with US forces going to DEFCON 2 in preparation to full scale war. America realized that the missile launchers construction was continuing and decided that a full scale invasion of Cuba would be needed to stop the missile bases being completed, the Soviets then transmitted a proposal that all missile bases in Cuba would be dismantled in exchange for the United States not invading Cuba and dismantling Americas missile bases in Turkey.

7 Men are arrested by Cuban Authorities and investigated for possible spying activities , the men were all frogmen diving off the coast of Cuba, American Authorities have confirmed 7 men have been reported missing who were diving for treasure .

US Embargo Imports From Cuba
A U.S. embargo ordered by President Kennedy will go into effect on all imports from Cuba including tobacco, seafood, fruits and vegetables

U.S. Blockade Cuba Ends
President Kennedy, calls off the U.S. blockade of Cuba in return for promised removal of Soviet bombers from the island.

Return Of Captured Americans From Bay Of Pigs Operation
The US government reaches an agreement with Cuba for the return of prisoners captured during the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba paying a ransom of $53 million in food and medical supplies when the last of more than 1,000 men taken prisoner are returned to the United States in time for Christmas.

Telstar Launched
Telstar, the world's first communications satellite a privately sponsored space launch was launched into orbit . The Telstar communications satellite relays the first live transatlantic television signal and the worlds telephone call transmitted through space on July 23rd.

Silent Spring is Published
Rachel Carson publishes "Silent Spring" documenting the detrimental effects of uncontrolled use of pesticides on the environment, particularly the book talked about causing thinner egg shells and result in reproductive problems and death on birds and other wild life.

Incredible Hulk Changes Color
In the original Hulk Comic book magazine the Hulk had gray skin in the first edition on March 1962, but in the May edition the Hulk color had changed to Green

First KMART department Store
The first Kmart department store opens in Garden City, Michigan selling a range of Clothes, shoes, housewares, bedding, furniture, jewelry, beauty products, and electronics.
Kmart went through a period of rapid expansion up to the early eighties but from the late 80's due to lack of investment in technology and increased competition from the growing Walmart and Target stores and change in customer tastes sales continued to decline. In 2005 following sales decline Kmart merged with Sears, Roebuck and Company.

Brazil Wins 1962 World Cup
Brazil Wins the 1962 World Cup defeating Czechoslovakia 3-1 in Chili

McDonalds Friday Problem
After years of Friday sales dropping each week due the Catholic "No Meat On Fridays Rule", McDonald's find the solution with the Fillet-O-Fish sandwich.

This was not McDonald's first try at finding a solution in the mid 50's they had tried the "Hula Burger" which had all the ingredients of a normal burger just with a slice of grilled pineapple instead of the meat burger. The First Vegetarian burger was not a success as everyone wanted to know where is the meat.

Train Crash Tokyo
Two commuter trains and a freight train collide near Tokyo, Japan, killing more than 160 people and injuring over 350.

Jamaica Independence
Jamaica in the Caribbean gains it's independence from British rule in 1962 .

Algeria Gains Independence
Algeria in Africa gains it's independence from France in 1962

Ranger IV Crash Lands On Moon
The first US rocket lands on the moon Ranger IV three years after the first Russian landing of Lunik II in 1959. Both of these landings would be considered crash landings not controlled landings which would be required to put a man on the moon which did happen in July of 1969.

Robert Ettinger Publishes The Prospect of Immortality
Robert Ettinger a Michigan college physics teacher publishes the book "The Prospect of Immortality" that discusses Cryonics the low-temperature preservation of humans that can no longer be sustained by contemporary medicine until resuscitation may be possible in the future.
He went on to become President of The Cryonics Institute for over 25 years.

Originally the Cryonics Institute perfused its patients with the (antifreeze) cryoprotectant glycerol,

The Cryonics Institute still offers the service of Cryonics for those who have sufficient money to pay for the service.

It should be noted that in the medical field many experiments have been done in lowering a patients temperature as a means of helping the human body recover and saving limbs ( Going back many years fingers were put in ice to preserve them ) but this field has moved on so much further in the last 5 years.

Just one more piece to the puzzle 1987

A three-year-old beagle ( Miles ) is anesthetized, temperature adjusted to 68 degrees F. emptied of his own blood, and provided with a clear, synthetic blood that does not clot in the cold, and then almost frozen. Miles was legally dead for the hour he spent at or below 50 degrees before being thawed back to life and given back his blood. Nine months later he was still healthy .
The Cryonics experiment on Miles was carried out at the University of California at Berkeley .

Burundi Gains Independence
Burundi Gains Independence from Belgium in 1962

Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann the Nazi SS officer who organized Adolf Hitler's wish to exterminate Europe's Jewish population was executed for his crimes against humanity.

Friendship 7
The Friendship 7 piloted by Marine Lieutenant John Glenn, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. This was the first complete orbit around the earth made by an American astronaut.

Britain To Buy Polaris Missiles From US
Britain is to buy a number of Polaris missiles from the United States as part of Britain's nuclear deterrent , it is designed to be fired from a submarine and will carry a nuclear warhead .

Nevada Underground Nuclear Testing
The US Continued it's series of underground nuclear testing in Nevada with it's 29th test with a low yield nuclear explosion equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT

Plane Crash Long Island
95 people were killed in a plane crash that occurred along the South shore of Long Island, New York. The irony of it all is that this plane crash happened after the end of a long stretch of bad weather (rain and fog) that had continued for about a week-on a clear day.

Factory Workers Wages 1962
The average weekly take home pay of a factory worker with three dependents is now $94.87.
JFK warns Unions to show responsible wage restraint or inflation could damage the US Economy.

Worldwide Oral Polio Vaccine
Around the world after the approval by Governments of the Oral Polio Vaccine developed by Albert Sabin. Schools, Health Clinics and Doctors were preparing to administer the Polio Vaccine to children who had not received the injected Salk vaccine .

Polio had been increasing at an alarming rate prior to the development of the Salk vaccine and in 1952 alone over 58,000 cases of Polio occurred in the United States.

Deadly Smog Spreads Across England
The thick layer of smog which had covered London causing the death of 90 people for the last three days is spreading across the country. Due to the high concentration of sulphur dioxide in the smog the Ministry of Health has advised those who are vulnerable to stay indoors or make "do-it-yourself masks" such as thick cotton gauze or a scarf around the mouth and nose.

Oldest Parliament In The World
Although Iceland is remote and does not have an army or navy, it had become an important military air base since World War II. Iceland’s parliament is the oldest government in existence -- it is 1,032 years old.

Jacqueline Kennedy TV White House Tour
First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy gives a tour of the White House shown on Television which 3 out of 4 Americans watch on TV.

Spy Exchange
Francis Gary Powers, an American who was held by Russians after being shot down while flying over the Soviet Union, was released. In return, Americans had let go of a Russian spy.

French Riots 8 Die
The State of Emergency currently in force in Paris did not stop a demonstration in Paris by 20,000 protesters against the recent wave of bomb attacks in the French capital which was organised by France's main communist-led union. The Riot led to the deaths of 8 due to being trampled underfoot in the chaos .

Beatles Turned Down By Decca
The Beatles go for audition with Decca Records and are turned down

The Rolling Stones First Public Performance
The Rolling Stones give their first public performance at the Marquee Club in London, the original band included singer Mick Jagger, guitarists Keith Richards and Brian Jones, bassist Dick Taylor, and drummer Mick Avory.

Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe performed a rendition of "Happy Birthday" for President John F. Kennedy for his forty-fifth birthday during a fund-raiser at New York's Madison Square Garden.

The dress she wore that night was noted for being sheer and flesh colored with 2500 rhinestones sewn into it and designed by Jean Louis. The dress sold in 1999 at auction in New York for over US$1.26 million.

Marilyn Monroe is found dead later in the year in her bedroom, the death was ruled a suicide, as a bottle of empty sleeping pills was found near Monroe's body.

Economic Sanctions South Africa
The United Nations General Assembly voted to recommend to its 110 members the imposition of economic and political sanctions against the Republic of South Africa for its racist policies to it's own citizens.

lewd dance 1962
A woman was tried in court after performing a lewd dance at a local Hollywood night club. The reason that this woman went to court was because she had allowed audience members to stuff money into her costume-a practice more common today.
The womans argument regarding the allowing of money to be stuffed into her custom is that it is an old Greek custom. The jury had decided that it is Greek to them too, which implies that the jury probably ruled that she had done nothing wrong

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